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Orthopaedics SurgeryOur Team of Orthopaedic Consultants specialise in the investigation and treatment of musculo-skeletal diseases and injuries. Conditions such as Osteoarthritis which commonly affect the knee, hip or shoulder joints can cause a great deal of pain, deformity and weakness. This can significantly impair even the simplest of physical activity, resulting in discomfort and frustration. Our Orthopaedic Surgeons, using the latest advancements in science, technology and medicine, including minimum invasive techniques, computer and robot assisted surgery will aim to restore your lost functions and allow you to swiftly return back to your former way of life. The most common procedures undertaken are joint replacement surgeries such as (hip, knee, shoulder & ankle), Birmingham Hip Resurfacing, spinal artificial disc replacement, cartilage & bone transplantations, interlocking nailings, arthroscopic and reconstructive surgeries.

The Taj Medical Group of Orthopaedic Centres have some of the worlds most advanced facilities backed by highly experienced and internationally trained Orthopaedic Doctors, Consultants, Surgeons and clinical support staff. With the advancement of new technologies and the increasing expectation and demand from doctors and patients, we are witnessing an enormous growth in clinical orthopaedic research and surgery, particularly in the fields of traumatology, spinal surgery, joint replacement, sports medicine, musculoskeletal tumour management, hand microsurgery, foot and ankle surgery, paediatrics orthopaedic, and orthopaedic rehabilitation.

The typical Orthopaedic Surgeries performed at The Taj Medical Group's Orthopaedic Centres are :
  • Arthroscopic, Arthrotomy / Endoscopic surgery of all amenable joints
  • Miscellaneous neurolysis & nerve repair or graft
  • Peripheral nerve surgery
  • Excision of bone or soft tissue tumours (benign, e.g., osteochondroma, enchondroma, ganglion)
  • Osteotomy closed and osteotomy open (excluding open osteotomy of major bones i.e., femur, tibia pelvis, etc.,)
  • Synovectomy
  • Bone biopsy
  • Bone grafting non-union of fractures and pseudarthroses
  • Joint manipulation
  • Removal of internal and external fixation
  • Osteotomies of long bones
  • Tendon repairs and reconstructions
  • Open and closed fracture reduction (excluding major procedures e.g., Pelvis, femur, acetabulum, spine)
  • Fasciotomy and Fasciectomy
  • Bone graft
Lumbar Spine
  • Percutaneous or endoscopic discectomy
  • Biopsy
Hip Knee
  • Total Knee Replacement (TKR)
  • Repair of ligaments including ACL repair
  • Reconstruction of ligaments
  • Open reduction & fixation of fractures
  • Arthroscopic surgery, including meniscal surgery, synovectomy
  • Arthrotomy
  • Arthroscopic surgery
  • Reduction of fractures, open
  • Reduction of fractures, closed
  • Arthroplasty
  • Arthrodesis
  • Carpal tunnel release open or endoscopic
  • Palmar fasciotomy & fasciectomy
  • Repair of tendons: flexor, extensor
  • Arthroplasty
  • Tendon transplants
  • Internal fixation of fractures
  • Skin graft
  • Pollicization
  • Repair of syndactyly
  • Repair of digital nerves
  • Synovectomy
  • Tenodesis, tenolysis, and tendon transfers and grafts
  • Repair Boutonniere deformity
  • Arthroplasty finger, thumb, carpus and wrist
  • Neurolysis
  • Ganglion excision
  • Arthroscopic surgery
  • Release of tennis elbow
  • Fracture reduction and fixation
  • Osteotomy
  • Arthrolysis
  • Debridement
  • Open reduction of fracture
  • Arthroscopy and arthroscopic surgery
  • Arthrotomy
  • Open reduction of fracture
  • Repair of rotator cuff
  • Repair of acromioclavicular separation
  • Repair of dislocations
  • Rotator cuff repair
  • Labral surgery
  • Surgical decompression
  • Extensor mechanism realignment
Hip Joint Replacement Surgery
  • Treatment of Hip Arthritis
  • Types of Hip Replacement and Methods of Fixation
  • Benefits, Risks and Potential Complications
  • Revision Hip Surgery
  • Alternatives to Hip Replacement
  • Special Studies
  • Planning for Your Surgery
  • The Operation
  • Postoperative Course
  • After You Go Home
  • Long-term Precautions and Advice
The Birmingham Hip Resurfacing (BHR)The Birmingham Hip Resurfacing (BHR)
The hip joint is commonly called a "ball and socket" joint. The "ball" of the hip joint, the femoral head, rests within a "socket" called the acetabulum (see figure left). The femoral head and acetabulum are covered by a specialized surface, articular cartilage, which allows smooth and painless motion of the joint. With hip injury or disease, articular cartilage undergoes degeneration and wears away. The joint surfaces become rough and irregular resulting in pain and stiffness. This is commonly known as "arthritis" but it has many causes. The onset of pain is gradual and, initially, it occurs only after higher levels of physical activity. Pain gradually increases and may become present at rest as well. Physical disability includes a limp, muscle spasm, and decreased range of motion with increasing stiffness.

Treatment of Hip Arthritis
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Treatment options include reducing stress on the hip, physical therapy, and medications. Weight reduction is highly desirable, since one pound weight loss equals three pounds in stress reduction on the hip while walking! The use of a cane or walking stick is also a very effective means of reducing stress on the hip. Physical therapy and exercises are directed at preserving muscle strength and range of motion within the limits of pain. Recommended medications include anti-inflammatory agents such as aspirin, Indocin, Motrin, Feldene, Naprosyn, Voltaren, Lodine, and others.
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Types of Hip Replacement and Methods of Fixation
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Selection of the optimal treatment plan should be consistent with the degree of pain, the amount of hip disability, and the non-surgical and surgical alternatives. The individual's anticipated life span will also influence the selection of treatment.

Total Hip Replacement is an operation designed to replace the damaged hip joint. Various prosthetic designs and types of procedures are available to the surgeon. Our surgeons carefully evaluate the patient to: 1) determine if surgery is indicated; 2) determine the most appropriate type of procedure; and 3) develop a plan of treatment. The types of replacement, methods of fixation and new alternate bearing materials are discussed below. Total Hip Replacement - Stem Type with Acrylic Cement Fixation
Total Hip Replacement - Stem Type with Acrylic Cement Fixation Total Hip Replacement - Stem Type with Acrylic Cement Fixation
Fig 2a Fig 2b
In 1962, Sir John Charnley used a small (22 mm) stainless steel ball on a stem which was inserted into the bone to replace the femoral (ball) side of the joint and a high density plastic socket to replace the acetabular (socket) side. Both of these components were secured to bone with a self-curing acrylic polymer commonly referred to as bone cement. Several generations of designs have evolved from this original Charnley prosthesis. The ball is now modular thereby allowing balls of different sizes, materials and neck lengths to be placed onto the stem. Most balls are now made of either a cobalt chrome metal alloy or a ceramic material (Figures 2a and 2b). Results include consistent pain relief due to immediate fixation and rapid recovery with early weight bearing. It has been the general experience, however, that the long term results of cemented total hip replacements in young, active and/or heavy patients are not as consistently durable as desired. The loosening rate of cemented acetabular components increases with time leading to many failures after 10 or 15 years. For these reasons, cementless fixation has been advocated by some for younger or more active patients.

Total Hip Replacement - Stem Type without Cement Fixation Total Hip Replacement - Stem Type without Cement Fixation
Fig 3a Fig 3b
Total Hip Replacement - Stem Type without Cement Fixation
We are now in an era with widespread use of devices which are designed to attach to bone without the use of cement. Bone will attach to a metal implant if the surface of the metal has a certain "topography". This process is called porous ingrowth or osseointegration. The bone must be prepared precisely for these devices because close apposition to bone is necessary for bone to grow up to the smooth surface (osteointegration) or into the pores of the porous surfaces (porous ingrowth). In general, these devices are larger and longer than those used with cement but are proportional to the size of the individual bone. Surface coatings, such as hydroxyapatite, are also being utilized in an effort to hasten and/or enhance bone fixation. An example of this type of device is shown in Figures 3a and 3b.

Fig 3a Fig 3b Many different devices using cementless fixation have been utilized since their introduction in the U.S. in 1977. It is hoped that these devices will maintain their attachment to bone longer, but some caution is advised in their application. Complete pain relief after surgery is not as predictable as with cemented stems. This is related to the type of cementless hip prosthesis and the patient's anatomy, although most improve with time as fixation becomes more rigid. Candidates for these devices are generally younger and more active than those for cemented application.

Total Hip Replacement - Stem Type with Hybrid Fixation
Hybrid fixation is when one component is inserted without cement, usually the socket, and one component is inserted with cement, usually the stem. (Figures 4a and 4b)

Bearing Materials Used in Joint Replacement Bearing Materials Used in Joint Replacement
Fig 4a Fig 4b
Bearing Materials Used in Joint Replacement
Durability is dependent on the components used (materials, type and preparation of the surfaces, as well as the design of the components), technique and the quality of fixation, activity level of the patient, and the biological tissue reactivity which varies among individuals. The most commonly used bearing combinations in joint replacement today are metal or ceramic against ultra high molecular weight polyethylene. These combinations have functioned well for most patients. The durability is less in younger patients because of higher activity levels. The fine particulate debris that is produced causes tissue reaction. This process can undermine fixation and result in loosening. While there is undoubtedly variability in individual tissue reactivity to debris, there is no known methodology to evaluate and determine in advance which patients will react more severely. Since polyethylene wear is proportional to the ball size of the femoral head, it is recommended that the ball size should be reduced to 22 mm (roughly one-half to one-third that of the normal hip) to minimize wear for young and active individuals. However, the use of the small ball can produce instability problems in some individuals who have a greater amount of flexibility in their joints especially if the components are not optimally positioned.

Because of the known deleterious effects of wear debris, research has begun in an effort to minimize the wear of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene. However, it will be many years before we can determine the success of these developments.

Metal-on-Metal Bearings
Metal/Metal (M/M) bearings were first used in the United States when joint replacement began in the late 1960s. The component design and fixation techniques were primitive by today's standards. Further, the bearing manufacture was inconsistent and these devices were discontinued in the 1970s. Now with modern technology, bearing surfaces can be made optimally smooth and round and thus the wear is minimized. Volumetric wear, compared to polyethylene, can be reduced between 20 and 100 times depending on ball size. It is also possible that the wear will be reduced even further as research into this aspect intensifies. M/M devices were reintroduced in Europe in 1988. There are now U.S. manufacturers as well as European firms manufacturing all-metal devices.

In addition to reduction in volumetric wear, the biological tissue reaction locally, based on observation periods of up to 30 years, is less inflammatory, and therefore, less likely to undermine the component's fixation. With metal/metal bearings, unlike metal/polyethylene bearings, there is no penalty for increasing the ball size. Therefore, it is possible to safely improve the stability to minimize the risk of dislocation.

Ceramic-on-Ceramic Bearings
All alumina-ceramic bearings have been utilized in Europe since the early 1970s. A problem with the early ceramic materials was its large grain structure which led to fractures. Manufacturing of ceramics is now much improved with small grain size creating a much stronger material. These bearings also produce low wear similar to that of metal-on-metal bearings with substantial reductions over plastic bearings. Because of concerns related to the strength of the material, the shells must be made thicker in order to minimize fracture and, therefore, surface replacements are not feasible. The new generation components are much improved for stem-type devices. The all-alumina bearings are another option in the effort to minimize wear and tissue reaction and to provide longer term durability. However, the components must be optimally manufactured to minimize the risk of fracture and inserted precisely to minimise wear.

Hemi-Surface Replacement for Osteonecrosis
Fig 5
Hemi-Surface Replacement for Osteonecrosis
One option to minimize wear debris and tissue reaction is to eliminate the bearing by replacing only the diseased part of the joint. A hemi-surface replacement is often recommended for patients who have osteonecrosis of the femoral head (also referred to as avascular necrosis) and have some remaining articular cartilage on the acetabulum or pelvic side (Figure 5). The hemi-surface replacement preserves and maintains bone by providing physiological stress transfer to the femoral neck and proximal femur. It avoids inflammatory reaction and loosening due to polyethylene wear debris.

Fig 5 Beginning in 1981, custom hemi-surface devices were inserted utilizing a titanium alloy which is a relatively soft metal and scratches easily. These devices have been surprisingly successful with many still functioning over 16 years even in young patients whose average age was 32 years.

In 1996, newly designed components and instruments became available and are now being used in many international centres including in the United States, UK and India. Although the durability depends on the quality of the cartilage at the time of surgery, it is possible that even longer durability may be achieved with the new, harder surface cobalt chrome components which do not scratch easily. The technique is exacting and does require precision fitting of the hemi-arthroplasty to the articular cartilage of the pelvis. Patients who have had fractures of the neck of the femur require a stemmed hemi-arthroplasty. Surface hemi-arthroplasty has definite advantages over stem-type hemi-arthroplasty for patients with osteonecrosis because of its conservative nature.
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Orthopaedics Surgery

Orthopaedics Surgery

The Taj Medical Group

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